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COURT SPECIFICATIONS

General Configuration of the International Singles & Doubles Courts 

RECOMMENDED STANDARDS OF CONSTRUCTION

Match Officials 
Spectators 
Camera Facilities 
Court Dimensions and Tolerances 
Court Markings 
Court Walls 
The Door 
The Floor 
The Ceiling & Out of Court Areas
The Use of Colour and Designs 
Lighting 
Heating and Ventilation 
Singles court diagram Doubles court diagram

  INTRODUCTION

1 This Specification defines recommended standards for Singles & Doubles Squash courts for the International Game of Squash; referred to in North America as "Softball" Squash. It has been drawn up on behalf of the World Squash Federation (WSF) (previously the International Squash Rackets Federation (ISRF)) as the sole International Federation for Squash recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).

2 The AIMS of the Specification are to ensure comparability of recommended standards for courts from one country to another  to guide manufacturers, builders and designers as to suitable standards of squash court construction and design.

3 The Specification defines the basic characteristics of squash courts without reference to materials or methods of construction.

4 Courts built according to this Specification will be suitable for all types of play. The following events may only be played on courts which meet the Specification in all respects:

4.1 International matches between representative teams from different countries unless agreed in advance by both captains or National Associations

4.2 Individual or World Team Championships Semi-Finals and Finals

4.3 Such matches, events or championships as may be decided from time to time by the WSF.

5 The WSF reserves the right to amend the Specification at any time if it is in its view desirable that this should be done.

6 The WSF runs an Accreditation scheme for courts and equipment whereby materials and components are tested against the recommended standards set by the Federation.

Manufacturers of court materials and components may apply for such Accreditation and gain approval for their product as "WSF Approved and Certified". Accredited Companies

7 This Specification covers permanent court installations only. When finalised, a separate guidance on portable transparent courts, for special events, will be produced as Appendix 5 of this document.

8 The assistance of numerous manufacturers and National Associations in commenting on drafts and supplying information is acknowledged with grateful thanks, as is the work carried out by past and present Chairman and members of the WSF Technical Committee.

The Rules of the Individual Game of Squash contain Appendices relating to:-

The Dimensions of a singles court APPENDIX 1
The Dimensions of doubles court APPENDIX 2
Specification of the Squash Ball APPENDIX 3
Dimensions of a Squash Racket APPENDIX 4
Guidance on portable transparent Court APPENDIX 5- forthcoming

GENERAL CONFIGURATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SINGLES COURT

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RECOMMENDED STANDARDS OF CONSTRUCTION

1. MATCH OFFICIALS

1.1 There shall be space provided for a marker and a referee, who shall be able to see the whole of the court and shall be able to hear the play and the players and be heard by them.

1.2 The space for the marker and the referee shall be behind the plane of the back wall.

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2. SPECTATORS

2.1 Spectator areas may be located behind the plane of any wall of the court.

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3. CAMERA FACILITIES

3.1 Play may be televised, filmed, photographed or recorded in any way from above the court or through any of the walls, provided that:

3.1.1 no camera or other equipment may project into any part of the court or below the minimum clear height above the court specified in clause 4.4 below

3.1.2 players inside the court are not aware of any camera or other equipment, or any persons operating the cameras or other equipment, behind either the front or the side walls during play.

3.2 Camera panels may be incorporated in any part of the court playing walls provided that any such panel shall:

3.2.1 be flush with the adjacent wall surfaces on the court side

3.2.2 match as closely as possible the colour of the adjacent surfaces on the court side 

3.2.3 have similar rebound characteristics to the surrounding court playing surface

3.2.4 be fixed in such a way as to withstand indefinitely the impact of the ball, rackets and players in normal play

3.2.5 be constructed of a material (for example safety glass) which will not be liable to cause serious injury to players or spectators if it breaks.

3.3 Further details relating to the conditions for the use of television cameras are contained in Appendix 5.

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4. COURT DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES

Plan Dimensions

4.1 The plan dimensions of the singles court, measured 1 metre above finished floor level, shall be:

4.1.1 Length: 9750 mm plus or minus 10 mm
4.1.2 Width: 6400 mm plus or minus 10 mm
4.1.3 Diagonals: 11665 mm plus or minus 25 mm

4.2 The plan dimensions of the doubles court, measured 1 metre above finished floor level, shall be:

4.2.1 Length: 9750 mm plus or minus 10 mm
4.2.2 Width: 7620 mm plus or minus 10 mm
4.2.3 Diagonals: 12375 mm plus or minus 25 mm

4.3 For existing courts, it is recognised that on occasions where the wall playing surface has deteriorated beyond economic repair then the use of a wall renovation system might be considered. In these circumstances, it is recommended that the court plan dimensions are not reduced by more than 80 mm from those noted above.

Clear Height
4.4 The clear height above finished floor level (i.e. the height to the underside of the lowest obstruction) over the whole of the court shall be not less than 5.64 m. The clear height shall be measured to the underside of the lowest obstruction including lights.

Verticality of Court Walls
4.5
The Court Walls shall be vertical to within plus or minus 5mm in a height of 2 metres when measured:

4.5.1 within 250 mm of each corner of the court
4.5.2 at three additional intermediate points evenly spaced along the length of each wall.

Straightness of Walls
4.6 The walls of the court shall be straight to within plus or minus 15 mm in the length of any wall when measured horizontally at a height of 1 metre above finished floor level.

Plane of Court Walls
4.7 The walls of the court shall be plane and:

4.7.1 have no indentations, holes or open joints of more than 2 mm across in any dimension in the plane of the wall
4.7.2 have no variations from the true surface of more than 3 mm when measured in any direction with a 1800 mm long straight edge.

The Floor
4.8 The floor shall be level to within plus or minus 10 mm in the length, width and on the diagonals of the court.

4.9 Any joint in the floor finish shall be plane to within 0.25 mm. Any open joint shall not be more than 2 mm wide, except that an expansion gap not more than 6 mm wide shall be allowed at the juncture of the f loor with any wall.

4.10 The floor surface shall be true to within plus or minus 3 mm in 3 metres.

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5. COURT MARKINGS

Generally
5.1 All court markings shall be 50 mm wide and contrast in colour to adjoining surfaces, all wall markings shall be the same colour and all floor markings shall be the same colour,

5.2 All court markings shall be straight to within plus or minus 2 mm in 3 metres.

5.3 The maximum variation from the correct position of any court marking at any point shall not exceed 5 mm, except that the board shall not be more than 2 mm from the correct height at any point.

Front Wall
5.4 There shall be three horizontal court markings on the front wall:

5.4.1 the front wall line
5.4.2 the service line
5.4.3 the board, with the 'tin' beneath it for the full width of the court.

5.5 The lower edge of the front wall line shall be 4570 mm above finished floor level. The line shall not project into the space above the court and shall ideally be so shaped as to deflect any ball striking it.

5.6 The lower edge of the service line shall be 1780 mm above finished floor level. The line shall be marked on the surface of the wall and shall not deflect in any way any ball striking it.

5.7 The upper edge of the board shall be 480 mm above the finished floor level. The board shall project into the court by not more than 15 mm at the top and 45 mm at the bottom and shall be shaped so as to deflect any ball striking it. All edges of the board shall be rounded. Between the board and the floor, for the full width of the court, the 'tin' shall be constructed in such a manner as to make a distinctive noise when struck by the ball.

5.8 If the court has a transparent front wall it is recommended that the wall extends to a minimum height of 5250 mm above the floor.

5.9 As an alternative to the board electronic devices may be used providing they:-

5.9.1 Emit an audible sound when the ball passes within the 50 mm line zone that they replace.
5.9.2 Be unaffected by external condition such as vibrations, atmospherics or illuminance variations.

Back Wall
5.10 There shall be one horizontal court marking on the back wall, the back wall line. The lower edge of the line shall be 2130 mm above finished floor level except that if the court has a transparent wall 2130 mm (plus or minus 5 mm) high above finished floor level the back wall line shall be omitted.

5.11 If the court has a transparent back wall which is 2180 mm or more high above finished wall level, the back wall line shall be marked on the inside (court) face of the wall. No transparent wall with a height of between 2130 mm and 2180 mm (both dimensions plus or minus 5 mm) high above finished floor level shall be allowed.

5.12 If the court has a solid back wall, the back wall line shall ideally be so shaped as to deflect any ball striking it or shall be marked on the bottom edge of a sounding board not less than 200 mm deep across the full width of the court. Any such sounding board may project up to 5mm into the court.

Side Walls
5.13
There shall be one court marking on each side wall, the side wall line. The line shall join the ends of the front wall line and the back wall line. If the back wall line is omitted as allowed above, the side wall line shall join the ends of the front wall and an imaginary back wall line. The side wall lines shall not project into the court but should ideally be so shaped as to deflect any balls striking them.

5.14 If the court has a transparent side wall it is recommended that the wall extends to a minimum height of 5250 mm above the floor for at least the first 2000 mm back from the front wall.

Floor
5.15 There shall be four court markings on the floor:

5.15.1 the Short Line
5.15.2 the Half Court Line
5.15.3 the Service Boxes (2).

5.16 Court markings on the floor shall be flush with the finish and be non-slip.

5.17 The Short Line shall be parallel to the front and back walls of the court. The distance to the nearest edge of the Short Line from the Back Wall shall be 4260 mm. The Short Line shall be marked for the full width of the court.

5.18 The Half Court Line shall be parallel to and equidistant from the side walls. It shall run from the back wall to the Short Line.

5.19 There shall be two Service Boxes, one on each side of the court behind the Short Line. Each service box shall be square with internal sides of 1600 mm and shall be bounded on three sides by lines (one of each shall be a part of the short line) and on the fourth side by one of the side walls).

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6. COURT WALLS

Construction
6.1 Each wall of the court shall be of the same construction over the whole of the playing area except as allowed under 3.2 above. Adjacent walls need not be of the same construction.

Strength
6.2 The walls of the court and all components of them shall be capable of withstanding all the stresses which may be placed upon them in normal play and shall not suffer any permanent or temporary damage as a result of:

6.2.1 The impact of balls or rackets:

6.2.2 The impact of players defined as equivalent to that of a human body with a mass of 100kg and a coefficient of absorption of 47% (i.e. 47% of the impact energy is absorbed by the body and 53% transmitted to the wall), travelling at the moment of impact at a speed of 4.5 metres per second and striking the wall at right angles to it over an area of not more than 0.25 square metres at a height to the centre of the impact area of 1.47 metres (plus or minus 50 mm) over the whole of its length.

6.3 Where courts have transparent walls they shall be constructed of safety materials tested in accordance with the appropriate national standard to a test energy equivalent to that defined in 6.2.2 above and shall meet the stated requirements for safe breakage.

6.4 In the absence of any National Standards the requirements of British Standards BS6206 - 1981, German DIN 18038, North American ANSI Z97, BOCA 1984 and UBC 1991 are among those considered acceptable.

Deflection of Court Walls
6.5 The walls of the court shall not deflect under the impact of the ball in normal play to such an extent or in such a manner than the rebound of the ball is affected.

6.6 The walls may deflect under the impact of players if it is necessary for their structural integrity that they should do so; however, they should not deflect to such an extent or in such a manner so as to affect the safety of the players, officials or spectators.

6.7 Any wall which deflects as above shall return to its original static position within one second of the initial impact and shall not suffer any breakage nor any permanent or temporary damage as a result of the deflection.

Finishes
6.8 All playing walls of the court shall have a hard smooth finish.

6.9 Any front or side walls, or any transparent panel in the playing surface of the front or side walls, shall be treated and/or lit in such a manner as to make it non-reflecting when viewed from inside the court.

Reflectance
6.10 The average reflectance of the front and side walls shall not be less than 50% at any point when in a clean condition.

6.11 The reflectance of the front and side walls shall not vary at any point by more than plus or minus 5% of the average reflectance.

Ball Rebound
6.12 The ball shall rebound truly on striking all parts of the playing walls. The ball rebound
shall be consistent over the whole area of each wall.

6.13 All wall surfaces including transparent materials shall have surface friction such that the pace and wall angle characteristics are equivalent to that encountered in a plaster court.

Joints in Playing Surfaces
6.14 Any open joint in the finish of a wall of panel construction shall:

6.14.1 not deflect the rebound of the ball in any way

6.14.2 not be wider than 2 mm in the plane of the wall surface

6.14.3 be constructed in such a manner as to ensure that adjacent areas of the finish cannot move relative to one another at right angles to the plane of the wall following the impact of the ball, a racket or a player, except in the case of doors in transparent walls as allowed by clause 7.5 of this Specification.

Wall to Wall Junctions
6.15
There shall be no protrusions of any kind into the court at the junction of one wall with another.

Wall to Floor Junctions
6.16 There shall be no protrusion of any kind into the court at the junction of any wall of the court with the floor. An expansion joint may be provided at the junction of any wall of the court with the floor, but this shall not exceed 6 mm in any dimension or at any point where the adjoining surfaces are fixed or 12 mm when a moveable wall is used.

Moveable walls
6.17 While courts are provided with moveable walls these walls shall comply in all aspects with the above as if they are of a permanent construction.

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7. THE DOOR

Position of the Door
7.1 It is recommended that the door to the court is located in the middle of the back wall, but in any event should be in the middle third and shall open into the court.

Inside Surface of the Door
7.2 The inside surface of the door shall be plane and shall be flush with the adjacent wall surfaces when the door is closed. It shall be fitted with a flush handle and a restraining device which shall stop the door opening through 180 degrees and hitting the court wall.

7.3 The door shall match the colour, texture and ball rebound characteristics of the adjacent wall surfaces as closely as possible and shall be fitted with a latch or other mechanism which will prevent the door opening following an impact of a player with it on the court side.

Size of the Door
7.4 The door shall not normally be more than 900 mm wide and 2130 mm high. Note should be taken that local conditions may require disabled access greater than this which should be referred to manufacturers when transparent materials are being used.

Finger Traps with Transparent Doors
7.5 The amount by which the edge of any transparent door, or adjacent transparent panel, deflects relative to any part of the frame or edge of any adjacent panel following an impact equivalent to that of a simulated human body with a mass of 100 kg and a coefficient of absorption of 47% (i.e. 47% of the impact energy is absorbed by the body and 53% transmitted to the wall) striking the door or the transparent panel at right angles to it shall not exceed:

7.5.1 the thickness of the transparent panel plus 2 mm at an impact velocity of 3 metres per second

7.5.2 the thickness of the transparent panel plus 12 mm at an impact velocity of 4.5 metres per second.

8. THE FLOOR

Finish
8.1 The floor shall be hard, smooth, have limited spring and provide a firm footing in normal play.

8.2 The floor shall either be:

8.2.1 Able to absorb small amounts of moisture without becoming slippery, or;

8.2.2 If provided with an impervious surface be tested in accordance with appropriate National Standards to demonstrate adequate slip resistance in wet conditions.

8.3 In the absence of any National Standards the requirements of the German DIN 18032 Part 2 when tested in wet conditions is considered acceptable.

8.4 The floor shall be kept clean of all rubber, dust particles and other depositions which may reduce its slip resistance.

Resilience
8.5 The bounce of the ball shall be of even height and pace over the whole area of the floor.

8.6 When viewed from vertically above the line of flight of the ball, the linear path of the ball shall not be affected when it bounces on the floor.

Colour and Reflectance
8.7 The floor shall have a matt finish.

8.8 The floor shall have a natural wood finish or be otherwise coloured as below with a minimum reflectance value of 50% + or - 10%.

9. THE CEILING AND OUT OF COURT AREAS

Shape of the Ceiling
9.1 The ceiling shall be a simple shape against which the players shall be able to sight the ball without difficulty.

Ceiling Finish
9.2 The ceiling shall have a plain matt finish and shall be white or a light colour against which the players shall be able to sight the ball without difficulty. The minimum reflectance value shall be 80% as below and for the purposes of this paragraph the ceiling shall include all areas in view from the court against which players may have to sight the ball.

Roof Lights
9.3 There shall be no windows or other areas of glazing over any part of the court. If windows are provided in any walls above or adjoining the court they shall be provided with blinds.

Out Of Court Wall Areas
9.4 The walls of the court may be extended upwards as required but shall not project into the space above the court. Any wall so extended upwards shall have a plain matt finish and shall be white or a light colour against which the players shall be able to sight the ball without difficulty with a minimum reflectance value of 50% as below.

10. THE USE OF COLOUR AND DESIGNS

10.1 There shall be no more than three different colours on the floor and wall playing surfaces within the court.

10.2 Each of the side walls shall be of one colour and each side wall shall be the same colour.

10.3 The front wall may be two colours, one below and one above the service line. The front wall colours need not be the same colour as the side wall colours.

10.4 The floor shall have no more than two colours and each colour shall be bounded on at least two sides by the floor markings. The use of colours shall be symmetrical about the half court line. Natural wood materials shall be considered to be of one colour providing the whole complies with clause 10.5.

10.5 All colours shall have a minimum reflectance value of 50% and all colours shall be of the same reflectance value + or - 10%.

10.6 Colours will be permitted on all new and existing courts providing that the average illumination does not fall below the recommended standard of 500 lux or the minimum standard of 300 lux.

10.7 Out of court wall surfaces shall have a reflectance value the same or higher than any of the colours used on the play wall surfaces.

10.8 The ceiling shall have a minimum reflectance value of 80%.

10.9 Stripes or patterns of any type will not be permitted on the wall playing surfaces except on the front wall at a minimum height of 3600 mm above the floor where a logo, club or sponsors name may be used providing it is not more than 750 mm square and is located central on the front wall.

10.10 A logo, club or sponsors name on the floor will not normally be permitted however individual designs may be specifically approved by the WSF upon request.

10.11 The minimum reflectance value of any of the colours used in any logo or name shall be 30%.

10.12 The tin may be of any colour and contain advertising, logos, club or sponsors names providing no part has a reflectance value of less than 30%.

10.13 The court play lines may be any colour providing they contrast with all colours used on adjoining play surfaces. Wall play lines need not be the same colour as floor play lines.

10.14 Patterns and coaching aids on either the floor or the walls will not normally be permitted however individual designs may be specifically approved by the WSF upon request and following play testing to determine ball visibility.

10.15 All lines colours or other markings on the floor shall be non slip in accordance with the Squash Court Specification.

11. LIGHTING

Lighting Installation

11.1 The court shall be lit by artificial light. The level of illumination measured 1000 mm above the finished floor shall be

11.1.1 Recommended standard 500 lux
11.1.2 Minimum standard 300 lux
11.1.3 TV standard 1200 lux

11.2 The walls of the court shall be lit in such a way as to appear evenly and uniformly illuminated and the lux levels shall not vary at any point by more than 15% from the average level of illumination.

11.3 The lighting shall be shadow-free and free from any stroboscopic effects.

Transparent Back Walls
11.4 In courts with transparent walls, the level of illumination shall be the same on both sides of the wall.

12. HEATING AND VENTILATION

Temperature
12.1 It is recommended that a Squash court and any adjacent spectator areas (including the space for the marker and referee) shall be provided with a heating and/or air conditioning system which is capable of maintaining a temperature of between 10 and 25 degrees Celsius with an ideal range of 15 to 20 degrees Celsius.

12.2 Local variations in external temperature and humidity may result in temperatures outside of the above ranges being acceptable to players.

Ventilation System
12.3 The court and any adjacent spectator areas (including the space for the marker and referee) shall be provided with a ventilation system which shall provide not less than four complete air changes per hour when the court is in use.

Condensation
12.4 The court walls and floor shall be constructed, insulated, heated and/or ventilated in such a way as to ensure that they remain free of condensation when the court and any adjacent spectator area is in use.

Location of Grilles and Other Equipment
12.5 The only part of the court which may be used as a location for any heating or ventilation equipment shall be the board on the front wall, provided that the sounding characteristics are maintained and that there are no projections into the court

12.6 No part of any heating or ventilating or other equipment may project into the clear space above the court required by clause 4.4 of this Specification, excepting that equipment may be mounted on the front wall above the playing surface provided that:

12.6.1 no part of any such equipment is less than 5400 mm above floor level in the court 
12.6.2 no part of any such equipment projects more than 150 mm into the clear space above the court
12.6.3 no shadows are thrown onto the front wall.